3. MIGRATION & DISLOCATION

Voluntary and involuntary movement of people within or across national border (Social and environmental causes and effects).

I. ACTIVITIES & CONDITIONS

  1. Migration and dislocation
    1. Type of flow
      1. Refugee flows (involuntary)
        1. Political
        2. Economic
        3. Conflict
        4. Environmental
      2. Socio-economic migration (voluntary)
        1. Caused by wage differentials
        2. Family / group reunion and separation
        3. Brain drain / gain
      3. Combined rights
    2. Direction of flows
      1. Internal mobility
      2. External mobility
      3. Return mobility
    3. Characteristics of flows
      1. Phases of migration
      2. Poles of migration
      3. Push-pull mechanisms
      4. Changes is sending/receiving population-economic balances
      5. Duration of flows
    4. Status and benefits
      1. Access to socio-economic & political benefits
      2. Access to citizenship benefits & responsibilities
      3. Access to property rights
      4. Access to basic rights & needs

II. SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEMS

  1. Stresses related to changes in group composition
    1. Types of changes
      1. a. Ethnic/religious/racial
      2. b. Social-economic
      3. c. Age structure
      4. d. Other
    2. Effects
      1. Marginalization
      2. Pressure on existing socio-economic structures
      3. Impacts on resources
        1. Land
        2. Water
        3. Fuels
        4. Forests
  2. Changes in density and pattern
  3. Distribution tensions
  4. Political shifts

III. SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

  1. Responsive infrastructure strategies
    1. Transportation systems affecting the costs of moving
    2. Material infrastructure affecting differential benefits of living in migration poles.
  2. Resettlement strategies
    1. Forced
    2. Incentive based.

IV. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, & REGULATORY SOLUTIONS

  1. Migration policies and strategies
    1. Political discourse 
    2. Restrictive, selective or open policies
    3. Type of migration flows admitted
  2. Safeguards to human and natural habitats
    1. Maintain / attain a desired population distribution (protect places where people live).
    2. Designating places where people cannot live (national parks, wildlife areas).
    3. Particular regulations for vulnerable areas.
    4. Other
  3. Migrant support programs
    1. (Cultural) integration support -- to acquire new culture
    2. Programs to protect sending culture in receiving area
    3. Enhancing migrant capacity
  4. Legal status