2. URBANIZATION

An increase in the number and/or size of urban areas. A profound change in the lifestyle, the economy, the culture of a region from predominantly rural based to urban/city based.

I. ACTIVITIES & CONDITIONS

  1. Urbanization

II. SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEMS

  1. Poverty expansion 
    1. Poverty imported from other poor areas through immigration to cities 
    2. Poverty endogenously created in the city 
      1. ​​​​Business disinvestment/unemployment/ underemployment 
      2. Natural growth of poor population 
      3. Infrastructure breakdown, reduction of services to the poor 
  2. Social Stress
    1. Congestion
    2. Marginalization
      1. Higher crime rate
      2. Greater homelessness
    3. Mass political upheaval potential
    4. Conflict due to relative deprivations
  3. Urban Pollution & Natural Resource Shortages
    1. Pollution
      1. Polluted Mediums
        1. Air
        2. Water
        3. Land
      2. Pollution Types
        1. Exhaust emission
        2. Chemical/toxins
        3. Solids & liquid waste dumping and accumulation
        4. Pestilence
    2. Health effects
    3. Resource constraints
      1. Energy
      2. Water
      3. Land/space
  4. Spatial Dynamics
    1. Obstacles to access resources
    2. Cities and Megacities
      1. Merging
      2. Expansion
      3. Encroachment on non-urban areas

III. SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

  1. Solve high density problem/improve urban infrastructure
    1. 1. Type of infrastructure
      1. Fresh water
      2. Sanitation
      3. Drainage
      4. Waste minimization
      5. Transport system
      6. Communication
      7. Adequate shelter
    2. Targeted areas
      1. General city
      2. Marginal areas 
  2. Density management strategies
    1. Intermediate city development
    2. Rural infrastructure
    3. Enlarging city
    4. Urban agriculture

IV. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, & REGULATORY SOLUTIONS

  1. Waste Management
  2. Urban Services
    1. City planning and management
    2. Police force/law enforcement
    3. Health services
    4. Education
    5. Functioning market/retail system
    6. Others
  3. Strengthening Urban Communities
    1. Community centers
    2. Religious organizations
    3. Group specific activity groups
  4. Expand rural services