10. TRADE & FINANCE

Exchanges in goods and services, financial transfers, investments, and institutional mechanisms for these exchanges. (including trade arrangements, financial systems and services, and investment strategies.

I. ACTIVITIES & CONDITIONS

  1. Trade
    1. Who trades
    2. What is traded
    3. How it is traded
  2. Finance
    1. Financial systems
    2. Investments
    3. Instruments

II. SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEMS

  1. Environmental Impacts of Trade
    1. Wastes due to Conventional Process and Production Methods (PPMs)
      1. Product Related PPMs (PPMs transmitted by product)
        1. Food safety and health
        2. Non-recyclable packaging
      2. Non-product Related PPMs
    2. Type of Environmental Impact
      1. Transboundary Pollution:
        1. Water pollution
        2. Air pollution
        3. Resource damage and depletion
        4. Loss of bio-diversity
      2. Global Environmental Degradation
      3. Regional, National and Local Environmental Impacts
  2. Impacts of Trade Competitiveness
    1. Distortions in input uses
    2. Reallocations due to environmental regulations
    3. Reallocations due to trade regulations

III. SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

  1. Improved Products and Process
    1. Less Polluting Materials
    2. Effective Standards
      1. Product Standards
        1. Sanitary Measures
        2. Health Measures
      2. Process Standards
        1. Improved Waste management
        2. Safe waste disposal
  2. Improved Packaging and Shipment
    1. Returnable and multi-life containers in packaging
    2. Non- Polluting Shipment methods
  3. Cleaner Production
  4. Eco-efficiency Measures
    1. Products and Process
    2. Waste Management and Disposal
    3. Minimizing Inputs
    4. Streamlining Processes
    5. Substitutes

IV. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, & REGULATORY SOLUTIONS

  1. Market Strategy
    1. Equity and efficiency
    2. Incentives for Financial and Technical Assistance to LDC's
      1. Market Access
      2. Debt relief
      3. Access to finance and investment
      4. Access to "new" technology
    3. Type of Government Intervention
      1. Government Intervention
      2. Innovation to Manufacturing Process
      3. Pricing of natural resources
    4. Shifts in Consumer Behavior
      1. Responsive Investment Decisions
      2. Environmental consciousness
      3. Consumer pressures for health and environment
  2. Novel Financial Instruments
  3. Trade Measures and Policies
    1. Trade Instruments for environment
      1. Bans and Restrictions
      2. Trade Sanctions
      3. Tariffs              
      4. Border Tax Adjustments
      5. Countervailing Duties
      6. Mandatory Eco-labels
    2. Environmentally Sensitive Trade Policies
      1. National Environmental Legislations
      2. Harmonization
      3. Environmental Agreements
        1. CITES
        2. Basel Convention
        3. Montreal Protocol
        4. Other
      4. International Institutions for Trade
        1. GATT
        2. WTO
        3. UNCTAD
        4. ITO
        5. Other
      5. Voluntary arrangements and agreements
  4. Improved Accounting and Measurements
    1. Products and processes
    2. Trade and related exchanges
  5. Provisions for Dispute Resolution
    1. Mode
      1. Formal
      2. Informal
      3. Mixed
    2. Status
      1. Binding
      2. Non-binding