4. DEMANDS & CAPABILITIES

The concepts of demands and capabilities provide the transition from the individual to the broader social entity, notably, the state.

A demand is a determination that derives from a perceived (or felt) need, want, or desire for the purpose of narrowing or closing the gap between a perception of fact (what is) and a preference or value (what ought to be). Basic demands are usually for resource access, better living conditions, physical safety, and security, all of which are generally considered under the rubric of utility by economists. To meet demands -- and to close the gap between the is and the ought to-be, and possibly approach or establish a preferred condition -- individuals and societies must possess the required capabilities. 

Capabilities consist of the set of attributes that enable performance and allow individuals, groups, political systems, and entire societies to manage their demands. Given that states extensively in their capabilities, their environmental effects will also vary, as will the attendant pressures on the integrity of social systems, or the viability of the natural environment.