The construction of cyberspace creates new challenges and new demands for theory development and empirical analysis. The Internet, with the billions of computers it connects, its management, and the experiences it enables – has become a central feature of 21st centuries and has created a fundamentally new reality for almost everyone in the developed world as well as for rapidly growing numbers of people in the developing world.

1. Cyberspace and International Relations: Lateral pressure theory views cyberspace as a global domain of human interaction.
2. Cyber Challenges to the State: Cyberspace necessitates major departures for structure and process in international relations.
3. Dimensions of Security: Interactions in cyberspace have shifted the balance of power among different actors, including the traditional state powers, and enabled weaker actors to influence or even threaten stronger actors.
4. State Profiles – “Real” and Cyber: All of this creates an overarching and inescapable challenge for the state, the state system, and international relations.
5. Lateral Pressure in “Real” vs. Cyber Domains: Most of the empirical work on lateral pressure theory address the propensity for expansion of behavior outside territorial boundaries with reference to actual behavior (rather than propensity).